There are many factors that contribute to a flag’s overall look, feel, performance, and durability. (Not to mention price.)
Construction plays a major role in overall flag quality, but today we will focus solely on the heart of a flag, its material.
No two flags are alike. Each flag has a personality in the way it appears and moves. So what part does fabric play?
Most cloth flags today, are made of nylon, polyester, or cotton. (Historically, other flag materials included silk, wool, and linen.) Each of these fabrics has its own characteristics, varying in thickness, weave, and weight. And every material was designed for a specific use.
The Challenge: To choose the best flag material, you must consider the environment where the flag will be displayed and the performance you want.
An indoor flag will be displayed and viewed up close. In this case you may want a classic, soft, rich, vibrant fabric.On the other hand, maybe your flag will fly behind a boat exposed to extreme conditions: high wind and salt water.
Outdoor flags serve in harm's way. There are many factors at work on an outdoor flag that you may not have considered.
|high wind||low wind||temperature||rain||heat||cold|
|snow||ice||sun (UV rays)||salt water||chemicals||pollution|
Before we get ahead of ourselves...
Printed Flags are usually one piece of material printed on one or both sides. They tend to be made of thin, lightweight fabric and are most often the cheapest option.
Printed flags are thin, flat and one dimensional. The type of ink and method of printing will factor into the vibrance and longevity of printed flags.
Fully Sewn Flags, on the other hand, are made of many pieces of fabric assembled and stitched together. (That’s why construction, i.e. lock stitching vs. chain stitching is so important).
Added labor and time makes sewn flags more expensive. And since a quality flag is a bigger investment it is helpful to understand how different fabrics perform.
For sake of example, let's consider a fully sewn and embroidered American flag.
A sewn American flag is assembled from several pieces. The material parts consist of the heading (header), the canton (or star field), the stars, and stripes. (Here is the complete anatomy of the American flag.)
The heading is the side piece that is used for attachment. (Attachment methods may vary. For example are grommets, thimble, or pole hem.) Most often the header is made of a heavy duty duck cloth blend that feels like canvas.
The header bears the load when flying, so strength is the issue here, but most manufacturers use similar material and it is not a significant issue in flag choice.
What distinguishes a flag is the material used for the field, or stripes, stars, and background.
So let’s explore each fabric choice and what they have to offer.
Nylon (6,6) is a synthetic polymer that can be melt-processed into fiber. It was the first introduced by DuPont in the 1930s to great success. The first commercial use was for bristles on a toothbrush. Later, nylon became a revolutionary solution for women's stockings. Hence the term nylons.They were so popular it eventually led to the nylon riots.
Anyway, because it is strong and lightweight, during World War II, it was discovered that nylon was well-suited for use in parachutes and para-cord. This opened up many new applications for the synthetic fiber. Today, nylon is used in clothes, tents, seat belts, tarps, rope, nets, flags, etc.
Nylon can be manufactured in many forms. When woven and blended with other fabrics it has many properties that make it hard to beat when it comes to flag material.
As we mentioned before the most important factor in choosing the best flag material is to match the fabric to the intended use. All of the above characteristics make nylon an ideal fabric for outdoor flags.
|lightweight||flies in a slight breeze|
|strength and elasticity||holds up to high winds|
|fast drying/low water absorption||no mold|
|heat and cold resistant||all weather/any climate|
|easily dyed||vibrant color that won't fade|
|tough and difficult to tear||durability|
|inexpensive||value for the money|
|easy to wash||adds longevity|
|UV resistant||won't fade in the sun|
|acceptable outdoor flag||meets U.S. Flag Code|
§6. Time and occasions for display
(a) It is the universal custom to display the flag only from sunrise to sunset on buildings and on stationary flagstaffs in the open. However, when a patriotic effect is desired, the flag may be displayed 24 hours a day if properly illuminated during the hours of darkness.(c) The flag should not be displayed on days when the weather is inclement, except when an all weather flag is displayed.
These days, many flags are flying 24/7 in all kinds of weather. If that's the case you can't go wrong with a well made nylon flag.
Polyester is a synthetic (petroleum based) material. Made from various polymers, it is a material type called polyethylene terephthalate(PET). Discovered while continuing the project that led to nylon, polyester was patented in 1941.
Polyesters include naturally occurring chemicals (derived from plants) as well as synthetic chemicals. While natural polys are biodegradable, most synthetic polyesters are not biodegradable. It takes more than 200 years to decompose.
Basically, polyester is plastic.
Like nylon, polyester is melt-spun. This process allows the fibers to be made in different shapes and sizes for specific applications.
Polyester has many qualities that are great for flags. It can also be blended with natural fibers to get the benefits of both.
One common application is 2-ply poly in an open weave. An open weave allows air to pass through, which reduces friction and lowers fabric stress. Increasing durability and longevity for a flag.
For this reason, Poly is a good choice for large flags, commercial use and ideal for high wind situations.
Poly flags are the most durable outdoor flag in most conditions. But durability comes at a cost. Poly flags are also the most expensive.
The third option is cotton. Cotton grows naturally in the form of bolls on cotton plants. The fiber is spun into yarn or thread and used to make soft, breathable textiles. Cotton has been used to make fabric for 1000s of years.
Before synthetic fibers, most flags were made of cotton.
Nylon and poly offer advantages for outdoor flags. That is undeniable. Both are more durable, last longer, and easier to maintain than cotton.
That aside, a cotton flag has a certain elegance that is undeniable. It is a sentimental favorite among purists.
Both nylon and poly can be made in different sheen or luster. Cotton maintains a low luster which has a natural softness.It also possesses the most natural draping quality which makes it most suitable for indoor display.
Ceremonies deserve and command a level of respect. They're also usually a single event and do not require durability. That's makes fabric choice easy.
We recommend cotton for ceremonial flag fabric.
It is common after burial service to present the survivors with the casket flag. It will be folded and often displayed to honor the loss.
For close display and handling cotton is the sentimental favorite.
Manufacturers use technical terms to describe the qualities of fabric.
One term that is often used regarding nylon is denier. Denier (D) is a textile unit of measurement. Without getting too technical, it is a way of comparing a fiber's linear mass, or weight.
Put simply, denier is the weight in grams of 9000 meters of a fiber. The unit is based on silk. Silk is 1 denier which means 9000 meters of a single strand of silk weighs 1 gram.
Most nylon used in flags is around 200 D. This is a good balance of strength for durability and still lightweight enough for flyability.
Oxford cloth is not unique to the textile. It is a process that can be used with cotton, or a synthetic blend. Two fine filaments are woven together to produce a basket weave pattern.
The result is added strength and a fabric that breathes, allowing air to pass through. It is said to have a silklike lustrous appearance.
2-Ply is a term often used to describe polyester. "Ply" refers to the number of yarns woven together to make a single thread. When a thread is made of two pieces it adds strength when woven into a textile.
The US Textile and Wool Act requires that flags with a heading or that are bigger than 216 square inches (12”x18”) must be labeled to show:
The Flag Manufacturers Association of America FMAA is dedicated to certifying that American flags adhere to the US Textile and Wool Act and are Made in the USA. We are proud members of the FMAA. When you choose your flag, look for certification.
Material is an important consideration in choosing a flag.
The American flag is a living symbol and the fabric is the very soul. The look, feel, movement, and longevity all come from the material.
There are many good options covering a wide range of uses. To make the best choice, you must match fabric to use. Consider the environment and what you'd like your flag to represent.
If you are choosing an outdoor flag, what is your climate? How severe is the weather? Do you plan on flying your flag daily? 24/7? Or will you preserve the flag only flying in fair weather, special occasions, and holidays.
We put together the chart below to help make your decision.
Ultimately, it is a personal choice.
Thanks for your interest.